France permanently became a society of equals under the law. The Jacobin cause was picked up by Marxists in the midth century and became an element of communist thought around the world. In the Soviet Union , "Gracchus" Babeuf was regarded as a hero. Robinson the French Revolution had long-term effects in Europe. They suggest that "areas that were occupied by the French and that underwent radical institutional reform experienced more rapid urbanization and economic growth, especially after There is no evidence of a negative effect of French invasion.
A study in the European Economic Review found that the areas of Germany that were occupied by France in the 19th century and in which the Code Napoleon was applied have higher levels of trust and cooperation today. On July 16, , two days after the Storming of the Bastille , John Frederick Sackville , serving as ambassador to France, reported to Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds , "Thus, my Lord, the greatest revolution that we know anything of has been effected with, comparatively speaking—if the magnitude of the event is considered—the loss of very few lives.
From this moment we may consider France as a free country, the King a very limited monarch, and the nobility as reduced to a level with the rest of the nation. Britain led and funded the series of coalitions that fought France from to , and then restored the Bourbons. Philosophically, there was a significant debate internally, regarding the revolution, including the Revolution Controversy , a " pamphlet war " set off by the publication of Richard Price 's speech, A Discourse on the Love of Our Country , supporting the French Revolution as he had the American Revolution , and saying that patriotism actually centers around loving the people and principles of a nation, not its ruling class.
Edmund Burke responded with his own pamphlet, Reflections on the Revolution in France , attacking the French Revolution as a threat to the aristocracy of all countries. Conversely, two seminal political pieces of political history were written in Price's favor, supporting the general right of the French people to replace their State, Rights of Man by Thomas Paine , and A Vindication of the Rights of Men by Mary Wollstonecraft , who followed this with what is sometimes described as the first feminist text, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.
In Christopher Wyvill published Defence of Dr. Price and the Reformers of England , a plea for reform and moderation. This exchange of ideas has been described as "one of the great political debates in British history". In Ireland, the effect was to transform what had been an attempt by Protestant settlers to gain some autonomy into a mass movement led by the Society of United Irishmen involving Catholics and Protestants.
It stimulated the demand for further reform throughout Ireland, especially in Ulster. The upshot was a revolt in , led by Wolfe Tone , that was crushed by Britain.
German reaction to the Revolution swung from favourable to antagonistic. At first it brought liberal and democratic ideas, the end of gilds, serfdom and the Jewish ghetto. It brought economic freedoms and agrarian and legal reform. Above all the antagonism helped stimulate and shape German nationalism.
The French invaded Switzerland and turned it into an ally known as the " Helvetic Republic " — The interference with localism and traditional liberties was deeply resented, although some modernising reforms took place. The region of modern-day Belgium was divided between two polities: Both territories experienced revolutions in Both failed to attract international support. During the Revolutionary Wars, the French invaded and occupied the region between and , a time known as the French period. The new government enforced new reforms, incorporating the region into France itself.
New rulers were sent in by Paris. Belgian men were drafted into the French wars and heavily taxed.
During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate commoners took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, and a women's march on Versailles that forced the royal court back to Paris in October. Crowds of people swarmed in and around the palace. The movement was crushed. The Age of the Democratic Revolution: An evil or a rescuer? Barnave and his supporters among the Feuillants feared a war they thought France had little chance to win and which they feared might lead to greater radicalisation of the revolution.
Nearly everyone was Catholic, but the Church was repressed. Resistance was strong in every sector, as Belgian nationalism emerged to oppose French rule. The French legal system, however, was adopted, with its equal legal rights, and abolition of class distinctions. Belgium now had a government bureaucracy selected by merit. Antwerp regained access to the sea and grew quickly as a major port and business centre. France promoted commerce and capitalism, paving the way for the ascent of the bourgeoisie and the rapid growth of manufacturing and mining.
In economics, therefore, the nobility declined while the middle class Belgian entrepreneurs flourished because of their inclusion in a large market, paving the way for Belgium's leadership role after in the Industrial Revolution on the Continent. The Kingdom of Denmark adopted liberalising reforms in line with those of the French Revolution, with no direct contact. Reform was gradual and the regime itself carried out agrarian reforms that had the effect of weakening absolutism by creating a class of independent peasant freeholders. Much of the initiative came from well-organised liberals who directed political change in the first half of the 19th century.
The Revolution deeply polarised American politics, and this polarisation led to the creation of the First Party System. In , as war broke out in Europe, the Republican Party led by Thomas Jefferson favoured France and pointed to the treaty that was still in effect. George Washington and his unanimous cabinet, including Jefferson, decided that the treaty did not bind the United States to enter the war.
Washington proclaimed neutrality instead. Jefferson became president in , but was hostile to Napoleon as a dictator and emperor. However, the two entered negotiations over the Louisiana Territory and agreed to the Louisiana Purchase in , an acquisition that substantially increased the size of the United States.
The French Revolution has received enormous amounts of historical attention, both from the general public and from scholars and academics. The views of historians, in particular, have been characterised as falling along ideological lines, with disagreement over the significance and the major developments of the Revolution. Other thinkers, like the conservative Edmund Burke , maintained that the Revolution was the product of a few conspiratorial individuals who brainwashed the masses into subverting the old order—a claim rooted in the belief that the revolutionaries had no legitimate complaints.
Historians until the late 20th century emphasised class conflicts from a largely Marxist perspective as the fundamental driving cause of the Revolution. By the year many historians were saying that the field of the French Revolution was in intellectual disarray. The old model or paradigm focusing on class conflict has been discredited, and no new explanatory model had gained widespread support. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in history. It marks the end of the early modern period , which started around and is often seen as marking the "dawn of the modern era ".
After the collapse of the First Empire in , the French public lost the rights and privileges earned since the Revolution, but they remembered the participatory politics that characterised the period, with one historian commenting: Revolution became a tradition, and republicanism an enduring option. Some historians argue that the French people underwent a fundamental transformation in self-identity, evidenced by the elimination of privileges and their replacement by rights as well as the growing decline in social deference that highlighted the principle of equality throughout the Revolution.
This, combined with the egalitarian values introduced by the revolution, gave rise to a classless and co-operative model for society called " socialism " which profoundly influenced future revolutions in France and around the world. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see French Revolution disambiguation.
The Storming of the Bastille , 14 July Part of a series on the. Direct Capetians — Valois — Causes of the French Revolution. Estates General of in France. National Assembly French Revolution. National Constituent Assembly France.
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Execution of Louis XVI. Symbolism in the French Revolution. The French national anthem La Marseillaise ; text in French. Influence of the French Revolution. Historiography of the French Revolution. List of political groups in the French Revolution. Making Democracy in the French Revolution p. This was the truly original contribution of the Revolution to modern political culture. Frey and Marsha L. Frey, The French Revolution , Foreword.
Motivation, Communication, and Behavior , p. A History of the Modern World , pp. A History of the Modern World , p. Transaction Publishers, , pp. Aulard in Arthur Tilley, ed. A Companion to French Studies. The First Total War: The French Revolution in Global Perspective , pp. Citizenship and social class. Equality and sociability in French thought , — Princeton University Press, The Journal of Modern History Jordan 1 January The French Revolution Vs.
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The origins of the French revolution. Class War or Culture Clash? Revolution and Political Conflict in the French Navy — Cambridge University Press, Notes on the French Revolution and Napoleon. University of Chicago Press, Journal of Interdisciplinary History Journal of interdisciplinary history Retrieved 26 October A very short introduction , p. A Documentary Survey of the French Revolution. From its Origins to pp. Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, Chapter 4 pages 49— Revolutie en Keizerrijk Revolution and Empire.
Veen Media, Amsterdam, Faith, Desire, and Politics. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy summer —spring A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution pp. Past and Present Thompson, The French Revolution , pp.
Exploring the French Revolution p. Exploring the French Revolution, p. Exploring the French Revolution, Routledge, London and New York, Exploring the French Revolution , pp. Censer, "Historians Revisit the Terror — Again". Journal of Social History 48 2 The Making of the West. Aristocracy and its Enemies in the Age of Revolution. The flight of the king and the decline of the French monarchy summer —summer Retrieved 22 January The end of the monarchy and the September Murders The Path to Power — A Companion to the French Revolution.
Retrieved 8 February The end of the monarchy and the September Murders summer—fall Sonthonax to Victor Schoelcher, , , Paris: The new French republic and its enemies fall —summer A History of Modern Britain: The Oxford History of the French Revolution. The Terror in the French Revolution. The Reign of Terror fall —summer Gottschalk, The Era of the French Revolution — p. Carnot, Lazare Nicolas Marguerite. Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 6 March Archived from the original PDF on 17 January A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution , p.
University of California Press, Facts on File Publications, A Chronicle of the French Revolution. Revolution in the Netherlands — HB uitgevers, Baarn,  Ending the French Revolution: Violence, Justice, and Repression from the Terror to Napoleon. Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe. Macmillan International Higher Education. Ross, European Diplomatic History, — Artz, Reaction and Revolution: The International Journal of Communication Ethics 2 1 pp.
Popkin, "The Press and the French revolution after two hundred years. The A to Z of the French Revolution. Rosenwein, and Bonnie G. Since , 2nd ed. A Very Short Introduction. Paris, —," Eighteenth-Century Studies , , p. Cooper and John McCardell. The French Revolution and Human Rights. McMillan, France and women, — Women in Revolutionary Paris, — pp. The Case of Madame Roland," Canadian journal of history 36 2 pp. Sutherland, "Peasants, Lords, and Leviathan: Crouzet, "The role of assignats during the French Revolution: An evil or a rescuer? Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution: The Struggle, Volume II: Global Ramifications of the French Revolution.
Nationalism in the Age of the French Revolution. The Paradoxes of Nationalism: Thompson, Robespierre and the French Revolution p. The Coming of the French Revolution. Muslims in Western Politics. Economies, Societes, Civilisations 32 5 pp. The Peasantry in the French Revolution. Evidence from the French Revolution". Contesting the French Revolution.
Main Currents of Marxism: The Founders, the Golden Age, the Breakdown. Evidence from the Code Napoleon in Germany". The Struggle, Volume II pp. Retrieved 16 June Reassessing the Life and Thought of Edmund Burke. University of Missouri Press. Retrieved 17 June In Cottret, Bernard; Henneton, Lauric.
Presses Universitaires de Rennes. Economics and Politics in Germany, — Lerner, "The Helvetic Republic: Cook, Belgium pp. The French Revolution and the Case of Denmark". Scandinavian Journal of History. Rethinking the French Revolution: Marxism and the Revisionist Challenge.
How modern Is the French Revolution? The New World of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. Censer, Jack; Lynn Hunt Exploring the French Revolution. Pennsylvania State University Press. Cole, Alistair; Peter Campbell French electoral systems and elections since A History of the Modern World. The Oxford history of the French Revolution 3rd ed.
A very short introduction. The Oxford history of the French Revolution 2nd ed. The French Revolution and the Birth of Modernity. Frey, Linda; Marsha Frey Interpreting the French Revolution. A Social History of the French Revolution. University of Toronto Press. The Days of the French Revolution. Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution. A Cultural History of the French Revolution. From Its Origins to The French Revolution and the Church. A Concise History of the French Revolution. Schama, Simon . Routledge, London and New York.
The French Revolution — A short history of the French Revolution: University of California Press, Ltd. The Thermidorean regime and the directory: Surveys and reference Andress, David, ed. The French Revolution, a Political History, — 4 vol. The democrats and the violent. Mirande's critique of the French Revolution. Demokratak eta biolentoak , Donostia: The French Revolution pp Davies, Peter.
A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution , pp; long essays by scholars; conservative perspective; stress on history of ideas excerpt and text search Gershoy, Leo. A Socialist History of the French Revolution. Pluto Press , From its Origins to , famous French classic excerpt and text search v 1 Lefebvre, Georges.
French Revolution from — McPhee, Peter, ed. The French Revolution ; textbook by leading French scholar. Companion to the French Revolution , pp; hundreds of short entries. A Short History of the French Revolution 5th ed. Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution, — 2 vol , short essays by scholars vol 1 online ; vol 2 online Shusterman, Noah The French Revolution, — From the storming of the Bastille to Napoleon Sutherland, D.
Revolution and Counter-Revolution 2nd ed. Heath, readings from historians Brinton, Crane. The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, — Revolutionary Europe, — , scholarly survey excerpt and text search Politics and wars Andress, David. Civil war in the French revolution The Political Culture of the Old Regime, ed. Baker ; vol. The Political Culture of the French Revolution, ed. Lucas ; vol. The Transformation of Political Culture, —, eds. Ozouf ; vol. The French Revolutionary Wars — Origins of the French Revolution 3rd ed.
Journal of Interdisciplinary History. The Silent King 2nd ed. The Transformation of European Politics, — Learn more about Amazon Prime. France -- Revolution Collection: Bibliotheque historique; 3 Ce livre est la reproduction fidele d'une oeuvre publiee avant et fait partie d'une collection de livres reimprimes a la demande editee par Hachette Livre, dans le cadre d'un partenariat avec la Bibliotheque nationale de France, offrant l'opportunite d'acceder a des ouvrages anciens et souvent rares issus des fonds patrimoniaux de la BnF. Les oeuvres faisant partie de cette collection ont ete numerisees par la BnF et sont presentes sur Gallica, sa bibliotheque numerique.
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On 10 October, the Convention decreed that "the provisional government shall be revolutionary until peace. The trial of the Girondins started on the same day and they were executed on 31 October. Anti-clerical sentiments increased during and a campaign of dechristianization occurred. On 14 Frimaire 5 December was passed the Law of Frimaire , which gave the central government more control over the actions of the representatives on mission.
By the end of , two major factions had emerged, both threatening the Revolutionary Government: The Committee of Public Safety took actions against both. The Dantonists were arrested on 30 March, tried on 3 to 5 April and executed on 5 April. On 20 Prairial 8 June was celebrated across the country the Festival of the Supreme Being, which was part of the Cult of the Supreme Being , a deist national religion.
On 22 Prairial 10 June , the National Convention passed a law proposed by Georges Couthon , known as the Law of 22 Prairial , which simplified the judicial process and greatly accelerated the work of the Revolutionary Tribunal. With the enactment of the law, the number of executions greatly increased, and the period from this time to the Thermidorian Reaction became known as "The Grand Terror". On 8 Messidor 26 June , the French army won the Battle of Fleurus , which marked a turning point in France's military campaign and undermined the necessity of wartime measures and the legitimacy of the Revolutionary Government.
The fall of Robespierre was brought about by a combination of those who wanted more power for the Committee of Public Safety and a more radical policy than he was willing to allow and the moderates who completely opposed the revolutionary government. They had, between them, made the Law of 22 Prairial one of the charges against him, so that, after his fall, to advocate terror would be seen as adopting the policy of a convicted enemy of the republic, putting the advocate's own head at risk.
Between his arrest and his execution, Robespierre may have tried to commit suicide by shooting himself, although the bullet wound he sustained, whatever its origin, only shattered his jaw. Alternatively, he may have been shot by the gendarme Merda. The great confusion that arose during the storming of the municipal Hall of Paris, where Robespierre and his friends had found refuge, makes it impossible to be sure of the wound's origin.
In any case, Robespierre was guillotined the next day. The reign of the standing Committee of Public Safety was ended. New members were appointed the day after Robespierre's execution, and limits on terms of office were fixed a quarter of the committee retired every three months. The Committee's powers were gradually eroded. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in French. May Click [show] for important translation instructions.
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Retrieved 19 April Archived from the original PDF on 17 January Retrieved 2 December Marisa Linton reviews the life and career of one of the most vilified men in history". Retrieved 28 April